Humen Element

Human element cannot be overlooked. Not only is human behavior one of the biggest risks to a secure network, but understanding typical behavior is vital to identifying anomalies and preventing cyberattacks

Several reports have shown that humans are considered the greatest vulnerability to security (Schneier, 2004Furnell and Clarke, 2012), which has been also confirmed by recent reports. One report estimated that 95% of cyber and network attacks are due to human errors (Nobles, 2018). In our context, humans are either computer system users or security analysts (King et al., 2018Andrade and Yoo, 2019), though most research on this area focuses on errors done by computer system users.

Some human errors related to cyber and network security include, but not limited to, sharing passwords, oversharing information on social media, accessing suspicious websites, using unauthorised external media, indiscriminate clicking on links, reusing the same passwords in multiple places, opening an attachment from an untrusted source, sending sensitive information via mobile networks, not physically securing personal electronic devices, and not updating software (Boyce et al., 2011Calic et al., 2016). 

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